Blown Film Extrusion Introduction

Blown Film Extrusion Introduction
Blown film extrusion is a technology that is the most common method to make plastic films, especially for the packaging industry. The process involves extruding a tube of molten polymer through a die and inflating to several times its initial diameter to form a thin film bubble. This bubble is then collapsed and used as a lay-flat film or can be made into bags. Usually polyethylene is used with this process, and other materials can be used as blends with these polymers. A diagram of a polyethylene chain is shown in Figure 1 to the right.
Background Theory on Polymers

In the cooling step of blown film extrusion, the amorphous, transparent melt crystallizes to form a translucent, hazy, or opaque film. The point where opacity begins in the bubble is known as the frost line. 
Fig 1: Model of polytheylene chain frompolyethylene Wikipedia article.The frost line height is controlled by several parameters: the air flow, film speed, and temperature difference between the film and the surroundings. Properties of the film, such as tensile strength, flexural strength, toughness, and optical properties, drastically change depending on the orientation of the molecules. As the transverse or hoop direction properties increase, the machine or longitudinal direction properties decrease. For instance, if all the molecules were aligned in the machine direction, it would be easy to tear the film in that direction, and very difficult in the transverse direction.

The Film Blowing machine Process

Fig 2: Schematic of set-up from User:J.Chiang.

Typically, blown film extrusion is carried out vertically upwards, however horizontal and downward extrusion processes are now becoming more common. Figure 2 shows a schematic of the set-up for blown film extrusion. This procedure consists of four main steps: The polymer material starts in a pellet form, which are successively compacted and melted to form a continuous, viscous liquid. This molten plastic is then forced, or extruded, through an annular die. Air is injected through a hole in the center of the die, and the pressure causes the extruded melt to expand into a bubble. The air entering the bubble replaces air leaving it, so that even and constant pressure is maintained to ensure uniform thickness of the film. The bubble is pulled continually upwards from the die and a cooling ring blows air onto the film. The film can also be cooled from the inside using internal bubble cooling. This reduces the temperature inside the bubble, while maintaining the bubble diameter. After solidification at the frost line, the film moves into a set of nip rollers which collapse the bubble and flatten it into two flat film layers. The puller rolls pull the film onto windup rollers. The film passes through idler rolls during this process to ensure that there is uniform tension in the film. Between the nip rollers and the windup rollers, the film may pass through a treatment centre, depending on the application. During this stage, the film may be slit to form one or two films, or surface treated. Advantages Blown film generally has a better balance of mechanical properties than cast or extruded films because it is drawn in both the transverse and machine directions. Mechanical properties of the thin film include tensile and flexural strength, and toughness. The nearly uniform properties in both directions allow for maximum toughness in the film.
Blown film extrusion can be used to make one large film, two smaller ones, or tubes that can be made into bags. Also, one die can make many different widths and sizes without significant trimming. This high level of flexibility in the process leads to less scrap material and higher productivity. Blown films also require lower melting temperatures than cast extrusion. Measured at the die opening, the temperature of cast film is about 220 C, where as the temperature of blown film is about 135 C. Furthermore, the cost of the equipment is approximately 50% of a cast line.

Blown Film Extrusion Disadvantages Blown film has a less effective cooling process than flat film. Flat film cooling is done by means of chill rolls or water, which have significantly higher specific heat capacities than the air that is used in the blown film cooling process. The higher specific heat capacity allows the substance to absorb more heat with less change in the substance temperature. Compared to cast film, blown film has a more complicated and less accurate method to control film thickness; cast film has a thickness variation of 1 to 2% versus the 3 to 4% for blown film. The resins used for casting typically have a lower melt flow index, which is the amount of polymer that can be forced through a standard die in 10 minutes according to a standard procedure. The melt flow index for cast film is about 5.0 g/10 min where as for blown film it is about 1.0 g/10 min. Consequently, the production rates for cast film are higher: cast film lines can reach production rates of up to 300m/min where as blown film lines are usually less than half this value. And finally, cast film has better optical properties, including transparency, haze, and gloss.

Common Problems Air entrapment between film layers and rollers – this may cause film scratching or wrinkling, or processing problems when winding up the film due to reduced friction. Possible solutions to this is using a vacuum to remove entrapped air or by using winding rolls with a diamond shaped groove in the rubber cover to increase surface area and decrease amount of entrapped air in the film. Large output fluctuations from the die – this causes thickness variations, and can be prevented by keeping the extruder clean and by using more consistently shaped pellets in the extruder. Melt fractures – these appear as roughness or wavy lines on the film surface, and can be eliminated by lowering the viscosity of the polymer melt. This can be done by increasing the melting temperature or by adding an internal lubricant to the material composition. Thickness variations in the film – this can be avoided by centering the die in the extrusion line before every run, adjusting the air speed of the cooling system, or by using heated die lips. Die lines on the surface of the film – this defect reduces the aesthetic appeal of the film, reduces optical properties, and weakens mechanical properties such as tear strength. This can usually be avoided by routinely cleaning the inner surfaces of the die and by refinishing scratched or roughened flow surfaces. Gels – these defects are small, hard globules encapsulated in the film or stuck on the film surface and reduce the aesthetic appeal of the film and cause stress concentration points which may result in premature failure. These are caused by overheating to the point of polymer degradation in the die, and can therefore be avoided by cleaning the inner surfaces of the die on a regular basis. Optimization of the Process Coextrusion One way to improve the line efficiency of blown film extrusion is to implement coextrusion. This is the process of extruding two or more materials simultaneously through a single die. The orifices in the die are arranged such that the layers merge together before cooling. This process saves time because it extrudes two or more layers at the same time, and it provides a method with fewer steps to produce multilayer films. The production rate for a coextruded multilayer film of three layers is about 65m/min, and the production rate for a single layer of blown film is about 130m/min. Thus, in order to produce 10 000m of a three layer multilayer film, it would take almost 4 hours using a single layer blown film process, and only 2 and a half hours using the coextrusion process. Furthermore, the film produced from the single layer process would require an extra step to glue the layers together using some sort of adhesive. Coextrusion is the least expensive means of producing layered films and the coextrusion system is capable of quick changeovers to minimize production line down time.

Minimizing the Melt Temperature
The efficiency of blown film extrusion can be improved by minimizing the temperature of the polymer melt. Reduction of the melt temperature causes the melt to require less heating in the extruder. Normal extrusion conditions have a melting temperature at about 190 C despite the fact that the temperature of the melt only needs to be about 135 C. However, it is not always practical to decrease the melting temperature by that much. By decreasing the melt temperature 2 to 20 C, the motor load can be decreased by about 1 to 10%. Furthermore, reduction of the melt temperature causes less need for cooling, so there is a reduced use of the cooling system. Moreover, removing heat from the bubble is usually the rate-limiting factor in this extrusion process, so by having less heat in the polymer to remove, the rate of the process can be increased, thus yielding higher productivity. A way to maintain the melt temperature at a minimum is to choose an extruder that is matched to the specific processing conditions, such as the material of the melt, pressure, and throughput.

Heated Extrusion Die Lips
Typically, solutions to melt fractures involve decreasing the output or increasing the melt temperature to decrease the shear stress in the extruder. Both of these methods are not ideal because they both reduce the efficiency of the blown film line. Heated extrusion die lips can solve this problem. This targeted heating method allows for film extruders to be run at higher production rates with narrower die gaps while eliminating melt fractures. Direct heat is applied to the surface of the polymer melt as it exits the die so that viscosity is reduced. Therefore, melt fractures, which are caused when trying to extrude too much of the polymer at one time, will no longer act as a limiting factor to increasing the production rate. Furthermore, heated die lips use less energy than increasing the melting temperature because only the surface of the melt is heated and not the bulk of the liquid. Another benefit of using heated die lips is that thickness variations can be controlled by adding heat to certain areas along the die circumference to make the film at that position thinner. This would ensure that no excess material is used.
Determine how much energy each of these processes can save per given volume of material. 

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A variety of roulette furniture and styles

The saying Incheslive dealer rouletteInches is french for “modest tyreInch. The first online roulette sport was often known as “French Live rouletteIn . and it practically took over the ecu betting arena noisy . 1700s. Right now nearly all This particular language Live dealer roulette dining tables worldwide have already been replaced by a European type of the American Online roulette.
The U . s . and also the European live roulette kitchen table styles are virtually the identical, the real difference could be that the European Roulette table ( read more here) has one particular absolutely no place () along with the U . s . kitchen table has two actually zero jobs (, 00). One other major big difference will be the sequence of the quantities about the online roulette controls. These are completely different.
French live roulette also has 1 absolutely no only, nevertheless the kitchen table design is somewhat different and bigger (see image of table structure under), and there are no particular person tinted potato chips to the players, income casino chips are utilized. Also, a adhere can be used from the dealer and stickman to broadcast the successful number, to get the casino chips from the desk and to spend the money for champions, that makes the overall game reduced as opposed to American edition.
Within the U . s . and Eu live dealer roulette particular person colored poker chips can be used every single person and after the end result the sacrificing casino chips are accumulated from your table yourself as well as the profits are paid yourself. Enjoy is much quicker than the French roulette.
In French on line casinos InchesUnited states Roulette” implies a roulette video game with increase zeros (, 00 – on the table format and so on the tyre), just like utilized in the USA. The U . s . live dealer roulette with one no (or Western variation) is referred to as English Live roulette to tell apart it in the twice-actually zero United states Live roulette also to stress that it has 1 zero only (as utilised in the UK).
Even so, in numerous international locations (such as the United kingdom) the single-actually zero European live roulette is called National Live dealer roulette to distinguish it in the This particular language online roulette stand layout and also for the manner the game is performed. In certain Cameras nations around the world they refer to it ‘Roulette with People from france numeration on American table’.
In conclusion:
U . s . Roulette will have a one no or perhaps a dual actually zero, nevertheless the fashion it’s played out is the identical either way, and participate in is faster than French Live roulette. Independent of the no roles, the stand layout is the identical. One other key variation is incorporated in the roulette steering wheel, the succession with the numbers for the wheel is completely diverse. Western Online roulette, a condition generally employed in the united states, is roulette using a solitary no no matter the desk design, could talk about both the National Live roulette with a single no or to france Live roulette as equally make use of the same sort of roulette tyre with the exact same string of numbers. This particular language Live roulette is known everywhere as French Roulette, carries a individual actually zero, a wide kitchen table format and have Stickmen that deal with the casino chips. American Live dealer roulette in USA gambling houses plus France on line casinos is referred to the U . s . Live dealer roulette with twice zeros (, 00). United states Online roulette in non-US and low-This particular language gambling establishments (by way of example: in Uk gambling establishments) is described the United states Live roulette which has a one zero. In most European gambling establishments the National one absolutely no live dealer roulette is named Honest Roulette. Language Live dealer roulette, an expression popular in People from france on line casinos, is referred to the U . s . Live roulette using a individual no, as used in British Isles casinos.
The stand format around the People from france form of live dealer roulette is different from the United states fashion roulette kitchen table proven earlier mentioned. The main difference is at the positioning of the aspect wagers (outside gamble). The side wagers around the French desk are divided in 2 and operate together each party of the table format. Both sides gamble emerges its France name and often also its Language interpretation underneath.
Live roulette Declared Wagers or Get in touch with Wagers (Found in French roulette furniture plus some Western gambling establishments with solitary-absolutely no tyre live roulette tables. Frequent in most British isles gambling establishments with one-absolutely no tyre United states design roulette dining tables.)
Roulite or Roulight will be the modern day various Roulette. A desk sport which has been developed in the beginning by specialists on the Wiesbaden Gambling establishment, Wiesbaden, Belgium.
The sport is energetic and intensely rapidly. Participants, who enjoy playing industries and neighbors find it irresistible. Wagers are only able to be put on entire quantities (staight up), on two attached numbers (split), neighbours of amounts and areas of the steering wheel. No exterior wagers.
Boule or Chicago Boule is a straightforward and quickly online game that is similar to Online roulette, popular in People from france on line casinos and can be played on the web.
The overall game features a kitchen table along with a steering wheel with 9 figures and three different shades. The steering wheel is content spun plus a tiny rubberized golf ball bounces across the tyre before settling into one of many coloured divots to discover the result.
Gambling will likely be comfortable to Live roulette players using the stand layout supplying an array of gambling alternatives. Participants are listed a guess on Red-colored or Dark-colored, Unusual as well as, High or Low, or on personal amounts of the wheel.
The telephone number 5, tinted discolored, performs in the same way towards the absolutely no ( or 00) in regular Live dealer roulette. It is possible to wager about it like all other person range, if the range 5 is uniquely spun then exactly the wagers on 5 acquire and all other wagers drop.
Since there are a smaller amount numbers in Boule, the likelihood of content spinning a 5 are greater actually zero staying content spun in typical Live roulette, making your house regarding Los angeles Boule greater than Live dealer roulette.
In the event you bet about the earning amount then you’re compensated 7:1, the actual payout for all table bets on personal figures, and 1:1 on all the wagers.
CAMMEGH distribute-guess live roulette stand design and present aboard
Spread-wager roulette is a exclusive CAMMEGH ( notion incorporating seven online roulette part wagers, offering the participants the opportunity to acquire higher affiliate marketer payouts with a single rewrite in the tyre (also improved property border for the casino). Several further bets groups are combined with a normal stand layout, situated among the exterior wagers as revealed on the image beneath.
How it works: A collection of electronic digital quantities, impartial in the live roulette controls amounts, become a secondary wheel around the digital billboard present plus a established addressing your live roulette steering wheel numbers, creating two concentric bands spinning in opposite instructions, as revealed on the billboard display image beneath.
When “you can forget table betsInch is released, the two jewelry on the display end, randomly aligning the two multiple quantities. This takes place prior to the golf ball around the true live roulette tyre concerns an end and lands on the earning amount.
Once the golf ball halts, the corresponding successful range around the exhibit wedding ring might be followed by its straightening electronic digital amount. The sum these matched quantities decides multiplication-gamble consequence. The billboard exhibit consistently exhibits the electric range final results alongside the regular live dealer roulette range benefits (see photograph under, on the remaining facet of the show).

How you can use your conrer sofa bed and corner sofa

There are many space efficient solutions now a day that most home owners can use for their homes or condominiums given the limited space that they have and with the use of a small corner sofa bed, they can achieve this kind of solution. There are many kinds of corner sofa bed that are being sold in the market and this kind of furniture has a double feature that can function well in a bedroom or in a guest room as well.

The corner sofa bed has many uses when it is placed properly in your home and when you learn to decorate it so that it can also be used in your living room when it has a feature of storages. There are many kinds and sizes of corner sofa bed and with this, you must first measure the size of the room so that you would know how big the sofa bed you are going to purchase and you would also define the dimensions of the room.

You must learn to also rearrange the other furniture in the room when you place your corner sofa bed together with other kinds of furniture and by doing this, you can really optimize the space of your room and making it more efficient in terms of the style. There are many kinds of materials for a corner sofa bed and if you want to buy one, you may choose a cheap corner sofa bed made up of a genuine leather because this is more classy as compared to other kinds of materials.

If you are tight on a budget and you are unable to afford a genuine leather of a corner sofa bed then you can purchase a sofa bed with a fabric material which is very affordable and it also blends with other kind of furniture. You can always buy additional storage with fabric textiles as its cover so that it will be more decorative and colorful when you place it under the sofa bed and this is very functional for small space in your room along with other furniture.

What matters most in choosing the kind of corner sofa bed with storage bed that you want is the kind of base that it got because the base will be the basis for the durability of the sofa bed. The use of bright colored pillows or cushions is a big help for you corner sofa bed to become more attractive and these will also serve as additional decorations inside you room.

Home Decorating Fabrics with cheap corner sofa bed

Home Decorating Fabrics with cheap corner sofa bed
Home decorating fabrics are meant to compliment a room. Beautiful fabrics can improve any space. Home decorating fabrics are used in upholstery, couch covers, slip-covers, bed coverings, window treatments, table coverings, etc. A room without home decorating fabric is plain with a cold feeling. Using home decorating fabrics, a space can be transformed into an inviting, warm and cozy place to relax and enjoy with family and friends. 
Because home decorating fabrics are an essential part of decorating a space, it is important to choose those that correspond with the other objects in the room. It’s easier to pick home decorating fabrics if you are using advice and suggestions for a particular decorating design. Without any direction, your interior decorating project can become frustrating and discouraging. Instead of working toward your dream home, you’ll find yourself caught up in a nightmare. 
There are plenty of home decorating themes to choose from. Each of them has their own color and style for home decorating fabrics. With a theme to guide you, choosing home decorating fabrics shouldn’t pose a problem. For example if you choose a tuscan theme, the home decorating fabric choices would include woven textures such as burlap, fabrics made from the abaca fiber and fabrics made from the banana tree fibres, savannah cloth and tobacco cloth. Tuscan home decorating fabrics tend to be heavier but they are very flexible and versatile. If you use the tuscan theme as your guide, these home decorating fabrics could be used for blinds, drapes, slip-covers and even perhaps even area rugs.
If you decide you like the cottage theme, home decorating fabrics would include floral patterns and bright colors. Cottage decorating, with regards to upholstery and the various projects requiring fabric, suggests bold and colourful patterns. Although a floral pattern is the most popular in home decorating fabrics for the cottage theme, printed fabrics with vegetables or fruit are also quite often used. 
Choosing the Victorian theme would suggest you choose home decorating fabrics such as velvet or brocade in rich colors of blue, green, burgundy and so on. Victorian home decorating fabrics are meant to be quite feminine as well as elaborate. These materials are used for curtains, bedding, slip-covers, etc. You might even want to trim these home decorating fabrics with lace, beads or ribbons and putting leather corner sofa bed
These are just a few examples of home decorating fabrics used in relation to different themes. You must choose fabrics that speak to you. It’s also important to remember that home decorating fabrics can be quite expensive. Once you’ve decided on a fabric and purchase it to use in your home, you may have to live with it for a long time. For this reason it is best to be absolutely certain before making that final decision. Home decorating fabrics often require special care for washing. If you’d rather a fabric that is easy to care for, make sure this is considered when choosing home decorating fabrics. Remember this is your space, your decision and it should meet your needs. There are thousands of home decorating fabrics to choose from. By using available resources such as home d├ęcor magazines, home decorating catalogues, Internet websites and of course fabric stores in your area, you ought to be capable of making a sensible decision and appropriate choice for home decorating fabrics.

What Research About Houses Can Teach You

Park Homes: Why You Should Consider These Homes After Retirement

Park homes have largely become a first choice for many retirees over the past years. You will not only get quality accommodation but you will also experience the comfort that many other residences lack. It is a fresh new start for retired seniors who want to leave the bustling city life in the past.

If you’re someone who likes cozy and high quality living, retirement park homes may be the best option for you. You can gaze out into the beauty of rural landscapes and relax all day long. One of the most advantageous aspects you will find in these homes is you can always find people who, just like you, are in for a peaceful and city-free life.

After retiring from work, you will definitely want tranquility and this is where retirement park homes can play a significant role. You will have peace-loving neighbors and you won’t have to stress over expenses since these homes are all for low cost living.

Caravan parks are always about its people and residents so even if you’re living alone, you won’t have that feeling of isolation. Most retirement park homes have fun activities, annual events, organizations, and clubs that you can enjoy and be part of. While everyone respects your privacy, you can always join in the fun whenever you feel like it.

Security is never a problem in these residences. A site manager of the owner will always be available to help you out in case you encounter any problems. If you have piping or roofing problems, you will always have someone to help with repairs.

It is generally accepted that park homes are more pocket-friendly compared to other residential home types. If you’re not aware of pricing, you can talk to a retirement park homes expert.

Park homes are much easier to maintain. They have been constructed mainly for environmentally friendly purposes. Quality materials are used during construction and weatherproofing and reliable insulation are both prioritized.

Comfort, convenience, and aesthetics are the core foundations of retirement park homes. Modern fixtures such as cabinets and cupboards are already installed so you won’t have to spend time building them when you finally move in. Most park homes also have heating, double glazing, and carpeting so you will only focus on packing up and settling down. Before purchasing your home, you need to ask your dealer regarding the items, appliances, or fixtures included.

Choose a reputable dealer who has been in the business for some time so you rest assured that you’re speaking with an expert. Read everything the contract says before signing it so you can avoid issues in the near future. If you have some questions about the sale, you should always ask. An honest provider will give you the answers you deserve. Prepare all the requirements needed of you so the process of obtaining your home will be faster.
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